The most widely accepted fuel storage guidelines and standards are developed through a consensus of technical specialists and government agents representing different perspectives and interests on fire, environmental, and other safety issues. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), ASTM International, the Air Transport Association (ATA), and the American Petroleum Institute (API) are the leading authorities. Each of these groups publishes a series of standards that concern fuel quality and storage issues. A selection of the most appropriate and popular of these guidelines follows:
EPA CFR 40
- Part 112 Oil Pollution Prevention requires the procedures for inspections and testing of above ground container tanks have been established
- Part 280 Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks (UST) requires that USTs must be inspected every 60 days to ensure the equipment is running properly.
NFPA 20 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection
- 8.6.4 Fuel Supply Maintenance states that “tanks shall always be filled by means that will ensure removal of all water and foreign material”
NFPA 25 Standard for the Inspection, Testing Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems
- Appendix B calls for a maintenance schedule to check to make sure diesel systems are free of water.
NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code (2008)
- 21.8.8 Requires tank owners to establish a procedure for checking and removing remaining water from the bottom of the storage tanks.
NFPA 110 Standard for Emergency Power and Standby Power Systems (2010)
- 188.8.131.52 All fuel tanks and systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
- 184.108.40.206* Fuel system design shall provide for a supply of clean fuel to the prime mover. (Annex A.220.127.116.11 provides further explanation of 18.104.22.168 )
- 22.214.171.124 Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is consumed within the storage life, or provision shall be made to replace stale fuel with clean fuel.
- 8.3.8 A fuel quality test shall be performed at least annually using tests approved by ASTM international standards.
ASTM International D975, Section X2. Storage and Thermal Stability of Diesel Fuels
- X2.6.1 A plan for monitoring the quality of bulk fuel during prolonged storage is an integral part of a successful program.
- X2.6.2 Stored fuel should be periodically sampled and its quality assessed.
- X2.7.1 Contamination levels in fuel can be reduced by storage in tanks kept free of water, and tankage should have provisions for water draining on a scheduled basis.
*Table A.126.96.36.199 ASTM Fuel Oil Rating (Diesel)
Rating Fuel Description
- A-2 Refinery fresh fuel
- A-3 Good
- A-4 Watch closely – aging has begun
- A-5 Advanced aging and oxidation
- A-6 Badly aged – not recommended
- A-7 Severe aging – do not use